Capitol Currents Newsletter

Wake Me Up in November, Part II

June 24, 2022

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Wake Me Up in November, Part II

By Tracy Zea, WCI President/CEO , Waterways Council, Inc.


Two years ago, I drafted an article for Capitol Currents explaining the likelihood of when the Water Resources Development Act (WRDA) of 2020 would be signed into law. Working under the title, "Wake Me Up in November," I indicated the upcoming 2020 election would influence, if not fully take up, the balance of Congress' time. And here we are two years later in an almost identical scenario!


On Wednesday, June 8th, the House of Representatives passed WRDA 2022. At press time for this article, the Senate, though completing its committee process, has not passed its version of WRDA off the floor. This is not an unusual circumstance, as with the last two WRDA bills (2018 and 2020) the Senate never passed its version and instead worked off a negotiated agreement they finalized with the House.


The Senate Environment and Public Works Committee has been vocal about trying to get a WRDA bill enacted by this summer, while the House has not signaled its timing. If you look back through history, since WRDA 1986, five of the 12 bills have been signed into law before the election, and seven of the 12 have been signed into law post-election during the lame-duck session.


The same can be said for annual appropriations. Since the 2004 election year, only once has an Energy and Water appropriations bill been signed into law before an election in November. And the last time Congress enacted all 12 annual appropriations bills before the end of the fiscal year was in 1996. The new normal is for Congress to move a package of multiple—if not all—of the appropriations bills well into December or allow for the legislation to spill over for a newly elected Congress to complete.


According to research carried out by the Pew Foundation, in the 116th Congress of 2019-2020, more than four in 10 bills were signed into law during the lame-duck session (151 of 344, or 44%). Looking back at the history of lame-duck sessions, not much legislation was passed post-election, until the 111th Congress (2009-2010), when consistently more than 25% of the bills passed during lame-duck sessions. The last two lame-duck sessions were the most active, with the 116th Congress at 44% and the 115th Congress at 37%.


If this new normal holds, with the recent past as a guide, WRDA and the Energy and Water Appropriations bill will likely not be enacted into law until after the 2022 mid-term elections.


This does not mean that we should sit back and wait. Grassroots advocacy continues to be an integral key to success for WCI achievements. Congress is currently scheduled to be in District and State work periods most of August and October. This is an excellent chance for WCI member companies to host elected officials at your facilities, terminals and offices to show Members and their staff how critically important the inland waterways are to the Nation’s supply chain. We encourage each of you to take the opportunity to engage with your elected officials during these months to help educate them on the value of the Nation’s inland waterways. As always, WCI can provide materials and information for these visits and meetings to further help you communicate key messages.



Legislator Profile: Rep. Ashley Hinson (R-IA)


In this issue of Capitol Currents we profile another elected official who has championed inland waterways: Congresswoman Ashley Hinson of Iowa’s First District.


Congresswoman Ashley Hinson proudly represents Iowa’s 1st district in Congress.


During her years as a reporter, Ashley shared the stories of countless Iowans on the local news. As their Congresswoman, she is bringing those stories to Washington to help shape federal policy and improve the lives of workers, farmers, seniors, veterans, and families in Iowa.


An Iowa native, Ashley is an award-winning journalist and a proud wife and mother of two. Ashley previously served in the Iowa state House and represented Iowa’s 67th House district, serving Hiawatha, Robins, Cedar Rapids, and Marion, where she currently resides. As a state Representative, she worked successfully to balance the budget, cut taxes, and protect the most vulnerable in her community.


In Congress, she continues to be a common-sense leader and pursue pro-growth policies. She has introduced and supported bipartisan legislation to improve child care access for working families in Iowa, root out corruption in Washington through federal lobbying bans, and create opportunities for workers in the community. She is a member of the House Appropriations Committee and House Budget Committee, where she oversees the government funding process and fights to ensure every taxpayer dollar is accounted for and spent responsibly. As a mother of two, she also has a keen interest in protecting the safety and security of Iowa families. 


Biographical Facts



Ashley Hinson



June 27,1983 in Des Moines, Iowa



Married to Matthew "Matt" Arenholz, Two children






University of Southern California (2001-2004)

Valley High School (West Des Moines, Iowa) (2001)


Public Office     

Jan. 3, 2021-present: U.S. House of Representatives

Jan. 9, 2017-Jan. 2, 2021: Iowa House of Representatives


Q: What prompted you to get into public service, and what has been the exciting aspect of representing your district?


I worked as an on-air reporter for years before I decided to run for office. In that role, I was constantly out speaking with folks all over the state–I connected with countless Iowans, covered highs and lows, and had the honor of sharing these stories on the air. Eventually, I decided to take my passion for telling stories and do more to improve people’s lives.


Hearing directly from Iowans is the best, and most important, aspect of my job. I’ve had a public, in-person town hall in every county of Iowa’s First Congressional District to provide an update on what I’m working on in Washington, take unfiltered questions from those in attendance, and hear what is top of mind for the Iowans I represent. I’m passionate about bringing the issues Iowans are talking about around their kitchen tables to the policy making tables in Washington.


Q: Who has had the most significant influence in your life, and how have they impacted you as a legislator?


My two sons, Max and Jax, are my “why.” Being a mom not only motivated me to run for office but has made me a stronger and more effective legislator. Every policy decision I make is with my boys in mind and with other families in mind–we can’t just think about today’s challenges, we have to think long-term and work to create a better future for the next generation.


Q: What are the benefits of Community Project Funding Requests, and how has this impacted your decision-making?


Bringing taxpayer dollars back to Iowa is a top priority for me. While big cities hire professional grant writers that speak the language of DC bureaucrats, rural areas can’t afford to pay for that service. In Congress, I’m fighting to ensure taxpayer dollars are reinvested in Iowa’s priorities instead of allowing an outsized share of federal resources go to urban areas. Through Community Project Funding, we’ve successfully brought taxpayer dollars home for public safety initiatives, targeted infrastructure, and other critical projects.



Q: Last year, you and your staff played a significant role in delivering a win for the inland waterways community. What was the response in your district when funding for the Navigation and Ecosystem Sustainability Program was announced? What’s next on your radar?


The Navigation and Ecosystem Sustainability Program (NESP) is critical to Iowa’s agriculture economy and our country’s entire supply chain. Over 60 percent of our nation’s grain exports travel through this lock and dam system–it opens up new market opportunities for our farmers and is a massive economic engine for the entire state. I was proud to work across the aisle and across the river with my Democratic colleague, Representative Cheri Bustos, and other lawmakers in the region to secure over $877 million in funding for NESP. I’ll continue working in a bipartisan manner to upgrade the lock and dam system along the Upper Mississippi River.


 Q: What is your favorite movie and why?


Amadeus. I grew up as the granddaughter of an oboist and cellist, and my parents met at the Des Moines Symphony. Naturally I would be interested in music, and took up piano and violin, and later played in the Des Moines symphony myself. Music is in my soul, and Mozart is to this day one of my favorite composers. I just loved the mix of music and telling the life story of a brilliant composer.



WCI Member Spotlight: Wood Resources, L.L.C.


Wood Resources, L.L.C. is a fourth generation, multi-divisional family business specializing in a range of maritime services and construction aggregates supply in New Orleans. With deep roots on the Lower Mississippi River, Wood Resources has recently combined cross-divisional expertise to expand its footprint north into Paducah.


Beginning as a midstream fueling company in 1953, Wood Resources has since grown its operations to include over 15 miles of barge fleeting, four mid-stream buoy systems, a fleet of towboats and dredges, and multiple strategically located sandpits and materials yards along the river.


For decades, they have stockpiled river sand, limestone, crushed concrete, and other aggregates in their sandpits that are used as foundation materials for construction projects across the ever-sinking landscape of Southeastern Louisiana. Their niche was discovered in their unparalleled ability to efficiently pump their own sandpits using their own dredge, the W.B. Wood. The W.B. Wood dredge is responsible for pumping the material that has supported many iconic pieces of infrastructure in the New Orleans area. Notably, it recently pumped and supplied the entire 2.4 million cubic yards of sand on which the new MSY Airport in New Orleans was built.


Until recently, Wood Resources has had limestone delivered to its facilities from a third-party customer. However, upon a recent acquisition of another towboat, the company is combining their strengths in both their towing and materials divisions to pick up the rock from Paducah and barge it back down themselves. “We rely on the use of America’s inland waterways system. Trucking in material of this quantity is inefficient in every way possible,” notes Caroline Zimmermann, land manager of Wood Resources.


This move of vertical integration ends their reliance on outside horsepower and allows the company to barge in more material than they were previously, which comes in good time as the demand for foundation material surges.


The city of New Orleans sits one- to two-feet below sea level and constantly battles sinking streets and potholes caused by subsurface water movement. While limestone is often used for aesthetic purposes in landscaping, it is also harder and more durable than most local materials making it the ideal rock for roadway base, driveways, and parking lots.


With New Orleans’ constant growth and the crucial role its Port plays in the sustainability of our national economy, the importance of maintaining the local road and highway systems is at an all-time high.


Because of their unique position in both the towing and aggregate industries, Wood Resources is perfectly postured to take on this next venture. Using the Mississippi River from the quarries of Kentucky to the swamps of Louisiana, Wood Resources says it is proud to take advantage of America’s assets and is thankful for Waterways Council, Inc.’s unwavering dedication to preserving our inland waterways system.



A Healthy Ecosystem means a Healthier Economy, & NESP Supports Both

By Kellis Moss, Director of Public Policy, Ducks Unlimited


Ducks Unlimited (DU) is the world's largest nonprofit organization dedicated to conserving North America’s wetlands and other waterfowl habitats. To the uninitiated, the most important thing to know about DU is that we’ve restored more than 15 million acres of waterfowl habitat to date.


The second most important thing is that partnerships are everything to DU. Our mission would not be achievable without our partnerships with farmers, ranchers, private landowners, local, state, and federal governments, corporations, foundations, and of course, our 1 million members and supporters across the continent.


Waterways Council, Inc. (WCI) is a great example of a partnership that has made a noticeable impact on our inland waterways in the United States. For an example, look no further than the Navigation and Ecosystem Sustainability Program (NESP). In 2007, Congress authorized NESP and approved $1.9 billion for the construction of seven 1,200-foot locks along the Upper Mississippi River System, in addition to $256 million for landscape improvements to the surrounding area.


The Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) has been designated by Congress as both a “nationally significant ecosystem” and a “nationally significant commercial navigation system,” making it the only river system in the United States that bears both such designations. And it’s easy to see why. The river transports many critical agriculture commodities, including over 60 percent of America’s corn and soybean exports, while also serving as a critical flyway for 60 percent of North America’s bird species. The UMRS also generates more than $584 billion in economic activity and supports almost 1.9 million jobs.


But the river system has certainly seen better days. The long-term integrity of the system faces many challenges because of severely outdated infrastructure, including locks built in the early 1900s and that are not designed with modern needs in mind. In addition, the condition of the surrounding ecosystem is often just as dire.


Modernizing the lock system is critically important, not only to support a sustainable river and its ecosystem but restoring the natural infrastructure along the river system can have just as big of an immediate impact. Wetlands, for example, offer far more than just waterfowl habitat – they mitigate the effects of flooding from storms, improve water quality, sequester carbon, support unmatched biodiversity, and offer valuable outdoor recreation opportunities. All of these are of critical importance to communities that rely on the Mississippi River.


Simply put, the river’s $54.8 billion tourism and recreation industry depend on a healthy ecosystem to ensure its continued prosperity and maintain the 686,000 jobs it supports.


That’s why the NESP is so important. NESP’s authorization includes robust funding to monitor and restore the health of the river ecosystem and ensure the survival of hundreds of species of fish, waterfowl, and other wildlife it supports. In addition, this program will update the lock system and improve the efficiency of the supporting natural infrastructure, which will help expand the economies of communities along the UMRS.


In many cases, a healthy ecosystem means a healthier economy. That’s why rehabilitating this important waterway and realizing its full commercial and economic potential starts with robust and thriving natural infrastructure supporting both the Mississippi River and the surrounding communities. Luckily, NESP works to accomplish both goals in equal measure and, as a result, represents the type of partnership consistent with the mission organizations like DU and WCI were built.



Welcome to WCI, Amber


On April 15, WCI welcomed new staff member Amber McClay as our Office Manager/ Events Coordinator. Born in Utah, Amber has lived in 11 states, among them Arkansas, Florida, Louisiana, and Indiana with her parents, and then Mississippi, North Carolina, New Jersey, Virginia, DC, and now Maryland. Her parents served in the U.S. Air Force, and her father recently retired from the Environmental Protection Agency.


She brings to WCI vast project management experience, specifically building engagement programs and leading teams. Her career has given her the opportunity to work with diverse populations to exceed organizational and data centric goals.


Amber graduated from Purdue University in 2012 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Elementary Education, and the University of Mississippi in 2014 with a Master of Arts degree in Higher Education Student Personnel.

Before joining WCI, Amber served as Assistant Director for Student and Young Alumni Engagement and Assistant Director for Student-Alumni Engagement in the Office of Alumni Relations at American University in Washington, DC.


Prior to that, she was Coordinator for Student Programming at the Medical College of Virginia (MCV) Campus Programs and Graduate and Professional Student Programming Board (GSPB) Advisor at Virginia Commonwealth University’s University Student Commons and Activities.

She also served as Guest Services Representative for the Virginia Hotel and Cottages at Cape Resorts (Cape May, NJ).


In her free time, Amber enjoys dance and fitness classes, gardening, camping, and bowling. When it comes to bowling she says, “I'm not that good, but I love the environment and competition!”


When asked about her experience at WCI so far, Amber said, “My favorite part about WCI is our inclusive team. I feel valued and confident in my work and am really lucky to have this opportunity in my career. I have loved learning about our members and this essential industry. It's easy to see the passion behind the work of our members, and I am so motivated to make a difference here!”


Reach out to Amber at 202/765-2166



Mississippi River Regional Planning Commission to Follow Corn Belt Ports, Form Major Port Region                                                                By Dr. Anshu Singh, Director of Sustainability and Conservation for the Corn Belt Ports


On April 20, 2022, the Mississippi River Regional Planning Commission (MRRPC) in La Crosse, Wisconsin, submitted a Letter of Intent as the non-federal sponsor to the U.S. Waterborne Commerce Statistics Center to form a port statistical area called the Northern Grain Belt Ports (NGBP) that encompasses 11 riverfront counties between Wisconsin and Minnesota. It includes the historic river cities of Red Wing, Wabasha, and Winona in Minnesota, and the port cities of La Crosse and Prairie du Chien in Wisconsin.


This regional effort is modeled after the Tri-State (IL, MO, IA) port regions to the south that are in the Heart of the Corn Belt above Mel Price Locks and Dam. The Corn Belt Ports were federally recognized as port statistical areas in 2020/21 and includes the Upper Mississippi River Ports (UMRP) of Iowa and Illinois, the Mid-America Port Commission (MAPC), and the Illinois Waterway (ILWW) Ports. The UMRP is centered on the I-74 and I-80 intersections with the Upper Mississippi River and handled 8.4 million tons of freight in 2020, the same size as the port of Miami, FL.  The MAPC is at the confluence of the Illinois and Upper Mississippi Rivers, includes the two I-72 interstate crossings, and handled 15 million tons of freight making it the 41st largest port in the United States, earning a spot-on Global Trade Magazine’s annual “Top 50 Power Ports List” in 2021.  The newly created ILWW includes ten riverfront counties and five existing ports that are serviced by I-74, I-39, I-55, and I-80 and handle 14.9 million tons of freight, making it the 42nd largest port, similar in size to the Port of Boston, MA.  The adjacent Joliet Regional Port District on the Illinois Waterway handled 8.6 million tons, similar in size to the port of Miami. The Corn Belt Ports are the collective equivalent of the largest inland port in the nation, based on tonnage.


Similar to each Corn Belt Port, the NGBP is tracking to be a Top 50 U.S. Port based on the tonnage and a Top 10 Inland Port. Likewise, the NGBP supports the development of rural and non-rural multi-modal transportation and natural infrastructure. It centers on an Interstate Highway intersection (I-90) with the Upper Mississippi River. It aligns with an existing regional planning agency, a Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO), economic development organizations, and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers District responsibilities. Chris Smith, the Director of the Operations for the Corn Belt Ports who shares lessons learned from the Corn Belt Ports Initiative with the MRRPC, said “The Northern Grain Belt Ports will encourage integrated regional transportation planning, and ecosystem restoration and sustainability efforts.”


Robert Sinkler, a Senior Advisor with Dawson & Associates, the nation’s premier firm for resolving complex challenges involving federal water and environmental policy, contemplated the federal recognition of ports in the Upper Mississippi River Basin, based on an article in the August 1, 2019 issue of Waterways Journal titled, “Quad Cities Are Loaded With Port Potential.”  Since then, the Corn Belt Ports team created the Corn Belt Ports and are now helping advance similar initiatives outside of the Tri-State (IL, MO IA) region. Sinkler frequently said, “You can’t invest in a port that doesn’t exist.” 


We are seeing increased federal, state, and non-profit organization investments in the Upper Mississippi River Basin above Mel Price Locks and Dam since the federal port recognition efforts.  This includes investments in both transportation and natural infrastructure for a unique region that is designated by Congress, “as both a nationally significant ecosystem and a nationally significant navigation system.” It is the only inland river in the United States to be designated as such. We are all looking forward to welcoming the Northern Grain Belt Ports to the growing regional ports family, and the value it will bring to waterborne commerce and the aquatic ecosystems on the Upper Mississippi River system.



Show Your WCI Pride With New Member Logo


WCI has developed a new logo for WCI members to display on your websites to show you are a proud part of our organization. The logo will be sent by request only.  If you would like to receive the logo, please email WCI Vice President Paul Rohde, Thank you!



New Study Addresses Waterways Competitiveness, National/Economic Security in World Market


On May 24, the Eno Center for Transportation released a study that was commissioned by the National Waterways Foundation (NWF) titled Waterborne Competitiveness: U.S. and Foreign Investments in Inland Waterways. Visit:


The study focuses on the U.S. inland waterways system and compares it to others from around the world, using case studies of river systems from Europe (Rhine River, Danube River), Asia (Yangtze River, Mekong River), and South America (Amazon River, Paraná-Paraguay Rivers) to compare investment levels, commodity flows, governance, and investment priorities. The case studies also reveal the effects of foreign direct investments on internal and external good movement, including the role of investment in other uses such as damming for hydroelectric power, have on the capacity to move goods to global markets.


The study concludes that the ability for the U.S. to maintain a position of strength depends on a regular assessment of infrastructure needs and multimodal development strategies. Two factors in particular—aging infrastructure and competition from other countries’ inland waterway networks—pose a risk to the economic and national security advantage long enjoyed by shippers and the broader U.S. economy


The case studies of six global rivers represent a unique set of political, economic, geographic, and social circumstances. Important lessons emerge about governance, investment priorities, and environmental pressures that offer lessons for U.S. inland waterways investment and multimodal freight policymaking.


“Low-cost transportation on America’s inland waterway system often provides the advantage that allows American farmers and manufacturers to successfully compete in the world market. We must be alert to the investments being made in the waterways of other nations that can erode our advantage and, where necessary, invest to increase the efficiency of our system to stay ahead,” said Matt Woodruff, Chairman of the National Waterways Foundation. “Eno’s study thoroughly examines the state of other countries’ inland waterways and provides some lessons learned for the United States. It also underscores that economic competitiveness is closely tied to national security, and U.S. domestic waterways network investment is vitally strategic,” said Woodruff. “It is concerning to note that China invests not only in its own waterways system but is making significant investments in waterways infrastructure in other countries with whom we compete," he continued.


“Examining other countries reveals the significant advantages that the U.S. inland waterway system brings to exporters, the military, and the broader economy,” said Paul Lewis, Policy Director at the Eno Center for Transportation. “But it also highlights how important it is to monitor foreign investments in global rivers and sustain best practices for investment and operations to ensure that the U.S. system remains competitive.”



Zea and Carpenter Kick Things Off at IMX2022


WCI President/CEO Tracy Zea and American Waterways Operators President/CEO Jennifer Carpenter kicked off the Inland Marine Expo (IMX) 2022 in St. Louis on May 24 with a joint keynote address on "Advocating for Tomorrow's Waterways." Mr. Zea addressed WCI’s efforts to ensure that the inland waterways system is efficient and reliable and receives necessary funding for lock modernization and maintenance, and Ms. Carpenter discussed AWO's efforts to promote economic and security contributions, as well as the safety and environmental advantages of the maritime industry.


Make plans to attend IMX in Nashville in 2023. #IMX23 .




High Achiever: Cherrie Felder Wins IMX2022 Award


WCI’s First Vice Chair Cherrie Felder won the prestigious Inland Marine Expo (IMX) Achievement Award 2022 in St. Louis on May 25. The award recognizes individuals who have spent their career making significant contributions to the maritime industry by helping it to be the most cost-efficient, safest and environmentally-friendly mode of transportation for many cargoes.


Cherrie, a 23-year veteran leader at Channel Shipyard, where she now serves as vice president, has been at the helm of many maritime industry organizations throughout her career, among them WCI, American Waterways Operators, Gulf Intracoastal Canal Association, Women's International Shipping & Trading Association, National Waterways Foundation, and the U.S. Coast Guard Foundation.


“She has the utmost respect of every single person in the marine industry today (and yesterday/yester-year too!),” WCI Senior Vice President Deb Calhoun said of Ms. Felder. “There is no better choice for IMX 2022’s achievement award because, simply put, it is Cherrie who has worked the hardest throughout her career to strengthen this industry and lay the groundwork and a path forward for leaders of tomorrow,” she continued.



Welcome, New WCI Members!


WCI is pleased to welcome the following new members who have joined us since April:


•        Schottel

•        Team Services LLC

•        Corn Belt Ports

•        Peabody Energy

•        Placid Refining

•        Thalle Construction Company

•        Willow Glen Terminal LLC



ACBL CEO Appears on CNBC:


On May 26, Mike Ellis, CEO of American Commercial Barge Line, appeared on CNBC’s Special: “Inflation USA” to discuss how inflation is hitting the cost of transporting goods around the country. He noted the impact of higher gas prices on waterways shipping, supply chain disruptions, and said of the inland waterways industry, “if we don’t move, America doesn’t move.”  Watch it here:



In May, WCI won a 2022 Reed Award from Campaigns & Elections for the Best TV Ad for Public Affairs Campaign or Issue Advocacy – Infrastructure. The Reed Awards, named after Campaigns & Elections founder Stanley Foster Reed, embody excellence in political campaigning, campaign management, political consulting and political design, grassroots and advocacy. WCI’s TV commercial that won can be viewed here:





The Illinois Waterway 2023 Consolidated Closures effort is underway, with crews hard at work on preparing for bulkhead recess installation at Brandon Road Lock this summer that will be used for next summer’s dewatering and maintenance effort.


Through August 14, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ Rock Island District began daytime closures of the Brandon Road Lock to install the bulkhead recesses. The closures last from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. Central daily, with a 70-foot width restriction in place when the lock is operational during overnight hours. A full closure of the lock is scheduled for August 15 through September 4. A final daytime closure period is scheduled from September 5-8 to finish the project.


During the closures, no vessels will be able to pass through the lock. Navigation in the pools upstream and downstream of the lock chamber will not be impacted as water levels will be maintained at a normal level throughout the season. To contact the lock at any time during the closures, call 815/744-1714 or use marine radio channel 14.


For more information on scheduled Illinois Waterway lock closures, visit or call the Rock Island District at 309/794-5729.


2022 Industry Calendar


July 12:  Rail & Maritime Summit  (Union League Club, Chicago, IL) At the summit, WCI Executive Committee and Board of Directors Member Peter Stephaich, Chairman, Campbell Transportation Company, CTC, with receive the 2022 Diolkos Award which recognizes an outstanding leader in the freight transportation sector who consistently demonstrates excellence, innovation, and integrity professionally and personally.



July 20:  AWO Southern Region Roundtable (The Port of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA) Visit:


August 3-5:  Gulf Intracoastal Canal Association 117th Annual Seminar (Westin, New Orleans, LA) Visit: (New Orleans)


August 10-12: Tennessee Tombigbee Waterway Development Authority, 2022 Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway Conference (Grand Hotel, Point Clear, AL) Visit:


August 31:  AWO Ohio Valley Region Roundtable (American Commercial Barge Line, Jeffersonville, IN) Visit:


October 12-13:  AWO 2022 Board of Directors Meeting and Fall Convention (The Diplomat, Hollywood, FL) Visit:


October 12-14: Pacific Northwest Waterways Association 2022 Annual Convention (AC Hotel by Marriott, Vancouver Waterfront) visit:


December 7-8: WCI Annual Meeting & Waterways Symposium (Paducah, Kentucky)